General Courts-Martial. A General Courts-Martial (GCM) is the highest trial used to adjudicate the most serious offenses under the UCMJ. A GCM can adjudge the widest range of offenses, within the limits proscribed by each offense, including confinement, fines, forfeiture of pay and allowances, reduction in grade, and, for certain offenses, death.
Special Courts Martial. Special Courts-Martial generally try misdemeanor level offenses. The maximum punishments at a Special Courts Martial are more limited than those available at a GCM. The maximum term of confinement is one year. Other authorizes sentences include up to three months hard labor, reduction to lowest pay grade and a bad conduct discharge.
Summary Courts-Martial. Summary Courts-Martial adjudicate the most minor offenses utilizing expedited and simplified procedures. Only enlisted members can be tried before a Summary Courts-Martial. The maximum permissible punishments are 30 days confinement; 45 days hard labor; forfeiture of thwo-thirds’s pay for one month; and reduction to lowest pay grade.